General Chemistry Revision

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atomic number lollest

number of protons in nucleus.

valence electrons

electrons in the outermost shell (can be easily shared, gained or lost)

Pauli Exclusion Principle

An atomic orbital may describe at most two electrons, each with opposite spin direction

Aufbau Principle

An electron occupies the lowest-energy orbital that can receive it

electro negativity

A measure of the ability of an atom in a chemical compound to attract electrons

gamma radiation

electromagnetic radiation emitted during radioactive decay and having an extremely short wavelength

covalent bond

A chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule

electrostatic repulsion

Describes a force between particles with opposite electrical charges that causes them to push apart from one another

Daltons Law of Partial Pressures

Total pressure of a gas is equal to the sum of the partial pressure of the component gases

heat of fusion

Amount of energy required to change a substance from the solid phase to the liquid phase.

Le Chateliers Principle

States that if a stress is applied to a system at equilibrium, the system shifts in the direction that relieves the stress.

surface tension

An inward force that tends to minimize the surface area of a liquid; it causes the surface to behave as if it were a thin skin


A common measure of solute concentration, referring to the number of moles of solute per liter of solution.


A liquids resistance to flowing

equilibrium constant

the ratio of product concentrations to reactant concentrations at equilibrium, with each concentration raised to a power equal to the number of moles of that substance in the balanced chemical equation